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Головна Філологічні науки → Лінгвостилістичні засоби реалізації категорії оцінки (на матеріалі американської художньої прози)

категорії оцінки.

Ключові слова: категорія оцінки, експлікація, лінгвостилістичні засоби, денотація, конотація, дієслівні засоби, модальність, корелююче поняття, художній текст, лексико-семантичне поле.

Островская А.Н. Лингвостилистические средства вражения категории оценки (на материале американской художественной прозы). Рукопись.

Диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата филологических наук по специальности 10.02.04. германские язки. Львовский национальнй униерситет имени Ивана Франко – Львов – 2001.

Диссертация посвящена изучению природ и сущности категории оценки в философском и лингвистическом понимании, а также кспликации её в системе языковых структур. В работе уточняется и дополняется определение понятия "оценка". Обосноввается необходимость определения денотативной и коннотативной аксиологической глагольной семантики. Исследуются особенности лингвистической реализации глагольнх средств категории оценки в художественном тексте с учётом категории модальности как коррелируемого понятия. В результате исследования установлен и системно описан лексико-семантические поля категории оценки.

Ключеве слова: категория оценки, кспликация, лингвостилистические средства, денотация, коннотация, глагольне средства, модальность, коррелируемое понятие, художественнй текст, лексико-семантическое поле.

Ostrovska O.M. The Linguo-Stylistic Means of Realization of the Category of Evaluation (on the material of American Fiction). Manuscript.

A thesis for the Scholarly Degree of Candidate of Philology in Speciality 10.02.04 Germanic Languages. Lviv Ivan Franko National University - L'viv - 2001.

The dissertation dwells upon the study of the nature of the category of evaluation in the philosophic and linguistic conceptions and its realization by the linguo-stylistic means.

The category of evaluation is closely connected with the denotative and connotative meanings. The word in the plan of content can be distinguished as positive and negative and in the plan of expression as implicit and explicit.

An important peculiarity of the category of evaluation consists in the existence of the subject which cooperates with the object.

The category of evaluation as the linguo-stylistic conception is defined as appraisal meaning within semantic structure of the word which realizes the attitude of the language collective to the words correlation with the word conception or object (good/bad, approve/disapprove). In this work the category of evaluation is regarded in the structure of fiction and in the latter it correlates with the categories of motion, time, space and consistency.

In the context the word can attain an evaluative component of good or bad quality and this component can be realized implicitly or explicitly depending on the author's outlook. The explication of the category of evaluation is carried out at the lexico-semantic, morphological and syntactical levels.

At the lexico-semantic level the category of evaluation in fiction, as paralinguistically classifiable, is divided into several types of evaluation, namely: by the appearance, by speech peculiarities, by mental ability, by character, by skill and practical knowledge.

At the morphological level the category of evaluation is represented by the evaluation words. They include: (a) the adjectives good/bad and their synonymes; (b) the adverbs which are formed from the adjectives good/bad; (c) the nouns such as: nonsense, fool, idiot, cleverness, wisdom; (d) the evaluation words which are represented by the verbs realizing the positive and negative meanings of evaluation: to like, to hate, to disagree, to approve, to disapprove, to enjoy. Numerals and pronouns do not belong directly to the type of the words of evaluation, but in a definite context they also attain the status of evaluation.

At the syntactical level the category of evaluation can be explicated by the words, word-combinations, utterances, paragraphs.

The main practical point of this research is to analyse the peculiarities of the realization of the category of evaluation by means of the verb.

The verbs of the semantic field of "evaluation" are differentiated in the folowing way:

1. Verbs of indication. There are verbs which do not possess the seme of evaluation themselves but in certain contexts they are able to attain it (the verbs of mental ability: to know, to think, to believe, to suppose, to find, to guess, to consider, to realize, to see, to suggest, to understand; the verbs of speech: to say, to call, to describe, to observe, to declare, to point out, to characterize, to note).

2. Verbs of representation. These verbs are divided into three groups: (a) the verbs which possess a distinctive seme "evaluation" (the verbs to like and to hate); (b) the verbs which express an evaluation contextually (to agree, to doubt, to hope, to regret, to hesitate, to want, to wish, to value, to adopt, to praise, to fail, to kill, to trouble, to expect, to admit, to envy, to dream, to approve); (c) the verbs of substitution (to do, to be). These verbs can be considered as the auxiliary and representative. In both of these functions they explicate the category of evaluation.

3. Link verbs express the existence of a certain quality or state. The nucleus of this microfield is the verb "to be". The verb "to keep" is the nucleus of the microfield of the verbs that define the maintenance or continuation of the state. The verb "to become" is a nucleus of the verbs that demonstrate the change of the state or quality.

4. Modal verbs. Modal verbs convey the subjective/objective attitude of human beings towards the phenomena of reality, that is their evaluation from the point of view of expressing ability, probability, necessity, supposition, uncertainty.

The category of evaluation in the structure of American fiction can be expressed both by the modal verbs and modal structures: "to be + Infinitive", "to have + Infinitive".

The modality of the English verb can be classified as regular lexical, irregular lexical and as lexico-grammatical categories.

The investigation of the peculiarities of the linguistic realization of the verbal means of the category of evaluation in fiction is considered the category of modality as a correlative concept.

Key words: category of evaluation, explication of linguo-stylistic means, denotation, connotation, verbal means, modality, correlative concept, fictional text, lexico-semantic field.

Підписано до друку 21.05.2001. Формат 60х84/16ю Папір друк. № 1.

Друк офсет. Обл.-вид.арк.1.2. Тираж 100. Зам. 157.

Видавничий центр Львівського національного університету імені Івана Франка

79000, м.Львів, вул. П.Дорошенка, 41