Ключевые слова:литературная репутация, популярная репутация, интеллектуальная (авангардная) репутация, академическая репутация, перевод, парафраза, купюра, конъектура.
Kohanska I.S. The literary reputation of the novel "For Whom the Bell Tolls" by Ernest Hemingway in American, Russian and Ukrainian literary studies. – Manuscript.
The thesis for the scholarly degree of Candidate of Philology in specialty 10.01.05 – Comparative Literary Studies. – Ternopil National Pedagogical University named after Volodymyr Hnatiuk. – Ternopil, 2007.
The thesis provides a complex analysis of the notion "literary reputation", summarizes the achievements of the American, Russian and Ukrainian literary studies in the sphere of researching of the subject matter. The results of the investigation have made it possible to claim that in the USA the problem has received more attention than in Russia or Ukraine. Practical studies of the issue, which have been constantly carried out in America since the beginning of the previous century, transformed into substantial theoretically-methodological works at the end of the XXth century. Neither the tradition of empirical investigations of the kind nor any grounded theoretical researches can be pointed out in Ukrainian and Russian literary studies. In our country the question has always been a neglected area while in Russia the scientists turned their eye to the issue at the turn of the millenniums, which resulted in multiple practical studies nonetheless obviously lacking theoretical ground.
The dissertation has made an attempt to systematize the constituent elements of the reputation-formation and has also endeavored to propose a complex scheme of criteria utilizable for the determining of the reputation quality. It dwells on the distinctive features of popular, intellectual (avant-garde) and academic reputation too. The paper delineates the essence of generational and national conflictology over establishing the reputation of the given aesthetic phenomenon. It has been proved that literary reputation cannot stay homogeneous with the flow of time and with the crossing of boundaries. Generational and national dissonances concerning evaluating literary phenomena result in the endless dynamics of their reputations.
The suggested theoretic points are applied to the analysis of Ernest Hemingway's novel "For Whom the Bell Tolls". The formation and dynamics of the literary reputation of the novel in the USA, Russia and Ukraine are scrutinized. The evaluation of its academic, intellectual (avant-garde) and popular reputation in each of the countries over the period from the 1940-s to 2000-s is carried out. The novel appears to have always been highly acclaimed, thoroughly studied and widely discussed in the USA and its reputation has not hence experienced the periods of complete disregard yet. In the USSR "For Whom the Bell Tolls" was forbidden to be either printed or discussed as ideologically "erroneous". The odious name of the book extrapolated and covered the whole of Hemingway's legacy which caused the suspension of his works' printing in the Soviet Union. The repression of the novel lasted for almost 30 years. Despite this fact the book was highly evaluated by Russian intellectuals. The official publication of the novel (in Russia – in 1968, in Ukraine – in 1969) provoked great scientific interest (represented by the works of I.Kashkin, V.Dnieprov, K.Simonov, B.Gribanov, A.Zvieriev, D.Zatonskyi, R.Dotsenko, T.Denysova, Yu.Lidskyi and many others) which died out only with collapse of the USSR. The novel experienced the peak of its academic reputation in Russia from the mid 60-s till 90-s and in Ukraine from the end of 60-s till the end of 70-s. Popular reputation was flourishing in both republics in 80-s, which is substantiated by the bulk of reprintings in this decade. Now the novel is experiencing subtle scientific and popular attention.
A comparison of the original text of the novel with its Russian and Ukrainian renderings (carried out respectively by N.Volzhyna, Ye.Kalashnikova and M.Pinchevskyi) discloses expurgations and paraphrases in the Soviet versions. The translators' intrusions into the original sense are mostly concentrated in the spheres of politics, religion and morality. By way of expurgating and paraphrasing Hemingway's outlook conception was deformed and thus the novel was adapted for the reception in the Soviet Union.
Key words:literary reputation, popular reputation, intellectual (avant-garde) reputation, academic reputation, translation, paraphrase, expurgation, conjecture.
Підписано до друку 24.07.2007.
Формат 84х108 1/32. Папір офсетний. Гарнітура Таймс.
Ум. друк. арк. 0, 9. Тираж 100.
Кременецького обласного гуманітарно-педагогічного інституту
імені Тараса Шевченка
47003, м. Кременець, вул. Ліцейна, 1.
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