Ballad is a syncretic genre, created at the junction of epos, lyrics and drama. Its characteristic features are dramatic suspense of the plot, singularity of conflict, small number of characters, concise presentation of the material, concentration of attention on major points, fragmentary depiction and presentation in the form of the dialogue. The genre focuses on desperate, often tragic conflicts of existential nature, depicted in concentrated, concise form.
The ballad plot reminds of a coil-spring, which can be stretched in a number of ways, transformed into poems, dramas, novels, in each case unveiling its energy in a new way.
Chapter 2 "Genesis of two legends" gives an in-depth review of sources of the legend about Marusya Churay –– a girl, who is regarded as the author and heroine of the song "Oh, don't you go, Hryts... ". This, in particular, is the novel of the Russian Prince Oleksandr Shakhovskyy "Marusya, Little-Russia's Safo", published in the collection of works "A Hundred Russian Men of Letters" (Petersburg, 1838) and biographical essay by O. Shklyarevskyy "Marusya Churay (Little-Russia's Singer) ", ("Pchela", 1877).
Over 30 variants of the folk ballad from various regions of Ukraine about poisoning Hryts have been analyzed. The ballad's peculiarities in comparison with other songs of similar themes and its link with the legend about the song-writer have been traced. In the simple, at first sight, text of the folk song the genotype of numerous literary works have been laid down –– from "Ukarania" by Bohdan Zalesskyy (ca. 1820's) to "Marusya Churay" by Lina Kostenko (1979).
Chapter 3 "Transformation of folk-ballad plot in literature (on the material of "Oh, don't you go, Hryts... ") deals with peculiarities of literary life of folk ballad in the works by B. Zalesskyy, L. Borovikovskyy, K. Topolya, T. Shevchenko, S. Rudanskyy, V. Aleksandrov, M. Starytskyy, I. Senchenko, O. Kobylyanska. Analysis of the contents and form of fiction works based on the folk song with the purpose of definition of the genre genotype, which allows ballad to transform into works of different genres in various literary epochs, has been made.
Wide opportunities have been noted for interpretation of the compact ballad material, expansion and supplementing new events, elaboration of new motivations, attaching greater meaning to the ballad characters and creation of new types against newer background, etc. Thus, literary re-arrangement of the plot modelled various versions of poisoning (deliberate, cold-blooded and accidental, unintentional), interpreted ballad characters in different manner (literary Hryts is far from always loving two ladies, in most of the versions he is simply unfaithful to his beloved); the plot was transferred to ethnographic-common life level (in the dramas by K. Topolya, M. Starytskyy, in the ballad by S. Rudanskyy), made deeper and more profound in psychological-philosophical plan (in the story by O. Kobylyanska), and was even used for ideological purposes (in the drama by Senchenko). Combination of the motives of the folk ballad with exotic gypsy motives enabled O. Kobylyanska to create a story-ballad of deeper psychologism and show in a refined manner the mentality of a double-soul personality.
Chapter 4 "Literary presentation of legend and ballad as a genre synthesis" on the example of work by H. Borakovskyy, V. Samiylenko, I. Khomenko, L. Zabashta, L. Kostenko traces peculiarities of literary presentation of the folk ballad about poisoning Hryts and the legend about Marusya Churay in their symbiosis.
Symbiosis of ballad and legend provided new opportunities for the writers to think up new lines of events, collisions of conflicts, enticing them, on the one side, for historiosophic understanding of the past of Ukraine and projecting it on the present day and on the future, for placement by moral-ethical problems the problems of national liberation, the struggle for which requires of the Ukrainian utmost civil qualities. On the other side, the motive of song creation aroused interest in the spiritual problems; Marusya Churay, as creator of folk poetry, was elevated to the height national spiritual symbol. At the crossroad of these two main motives new nuances of general human relationships emerged in the moral-ethical aspect (love, faithfulness and treason, guilt and punishment).
The genre of historiosophic novel-ballad in highly talented interpretation of Lina Kostenko permitted to elevate the said problems to the epic magnitude, create one of the most unique masterpieces of Ukrainian literature.
Literary presentation of legend and ballad in their symbiosis is a unique phenomenon, which expands our idea of "inter-pollination" of folklore and literature.
The Conclusion sums up results of the research work. Numerous literary versions of the ballad about poisoning Hryts demonstrate an endless potential of the compact folklore pra-form, in whose base there is encoded dramatism of universal existential human relations on the plot level.
Key words: literary presentation, folklorism, ballad, plot, genre.
Дах М.И. Литературная жизнь народной баллады "Ой не ходи, Грицю..." Проблема олитературивания сюжета и жанра. –– Рукопись.
Диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата филологических наук по специальности 10.01.07 –– фольклористика. –– Львовский национальный университет имени Ивана Франко. Львов, 2001.
Диссертация посвящена проблеме олитературивания народной баллады "Ой не ходи, Грицю..." В работе определена специфика жанра баллады, проанализировано свыше 30 вариантов народной баллады об отравлении Гриця и рассмотрено историю легенды о Марусе Чурай. Проведен анализ художественных произведений, в центре внимания которых лежит упомянутая народная баллада. Особое внимание посвящено повести "В воскресенье рано зелье копала" О.Кобылянской и историческому роману в стихах "Маруся Чурай" Л.Костенко, что, бесспорно, являются наилучшими литературными обработками сюжета.
Ключевые слова: олитературивание, фольклоризм, баллада, сюжет, жанр.
Підписано до друку 22.02.2001 р.
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