Диссертация содержит религиеведческо-философский анализ основных положений христианства и ислама о войне и мире. Особенное внимание уделяется раскрытию генезиса и трансформации концептов "война" и "мир" в их развитии – от первоисточников христианства и мусульманства – Книг Ветхого и Нового завета, Корана, Сунны, трудов христианских и мусульманских мыслителей до современной трактовки.
Исследуются тенденции и особенности эволюции понятия "война" в христианской традиции, раскрывается противоречивость христианской доктрины "справедливой войны", анализируется явление пацифизма; исследуется многоаспектная комплексная модель религиозно-философского понятия "мир" в христианстве, раскрывается его структура, в которой различается мир внешний и внутренний.
Автор раскрывает комплексность понятия "джихад" в первоисточниках ислама, а также его эволюция и развитие. Определяются типы джихада, его этические постулаты, ограничения и условия для его провозглашения. Специфика мусульманского концепта "мир" состоит в том, что настоящий мир на земле невозможен, пока на всей планете не утвердится ислам.
Проведен логико-семантический, составной и компаративный анализ концепций войны и мира в христианской и мусульманской традициях, исследуются истоки, тенденции и течения в исламском фундаментализме. Исследование выполнено с использованием широкого диапазона библиографических источников.
Ключевые слова: война, мир, христианство, ислам, фундаментализм, джихад, справедливая война, пацифизм.
Ontology of religious and philosophical concepts of war and peace in Christianity and Islam. - Manuscript.
Thesis for achieving Ph.D. (Candidate of Philosophy) degree (specialization 09.00.11 – religious studies).
G.S. Skovoroda Philosophy institute of Ukrainian National Academy of Science, Kyiv, 2005.
Dissertation studies important issues of war and peace in Christianity and Islam. Research is based on a wide range of bibliographical sources. Special attention is given to the development of the concepts in time, starting from Biblical conceptualizations in Old and New Testament, as well as in Koran and Sunnah. Christian concept of war exists in dichotomy of just and unjust wars. Christian just-war theory first was introduced by Saint Augustine, though certain ideas of limiting violence during hostile offence were not presented as a theory and some were known since Aristotle and Cicero. Augustinian criteria for a just war are 1) proper authority; 2) just cause or waging out of "charity"; 3) only for the purpose of keeping peace. Augustine condemned atrocities in the war. St. Thomas Aquinas changed some of these principles, suggested a double effect principle and systematized the theory giving it a shape of a doctrine. During the Counter-Reformation F.de Vittoria and F.de Suarez added two new criteria: 1) war must be fought as a last resort; 2) actions of soldiers should be controlled. Vatican II Documents and John Paul II encyclicals unconditionally condemned total war, denied the justice of any war of aggression, and emphasized the primacy of negotiated settlements. Research of Christian attitude to war includes the influence of Emperor Constantine on Christian ethics, Christian (later Catholic) Ecumenical Councils, Crusades, Reformation, emergence of pacifism, influence of Leo Tolstoy and M. Gandhi ideas. The study represents conceptual war models through semantics of languages used to spread Christianity (Hebrew, Aramaic, old Greek, and Latin). Similar analysis was applied to the concept of peace in Christianity which partly has lost its Biblical complexity but obtained a new dimension in expression King of Peace and in understanding peace as a state of mind. Christian concept of peace differentiates inner and outer peace and allows the idea of perpetual peace.
Similar approach was undertaken in analysis of different aspects of war and peace concepts in Islam with strong support from text of Koran, hadiths, theological studies conducted by Muslim theologians of different schools from Middle Ages (Abu Hanif, Malik, Al Shafii, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Tamiyah) to modern times (Muhammad Abduh, Mahmud Shaltut, Al-Gunaimi) as well as ideologists of fundamentalism (Said Al Kutb, Mawdudi, Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman). Semantic analysis of concepts' structures in Arabic is presented in format analogous to Christian one. The concept "jihad" was clarified as "effort", and different types of jihad (of heart, of tongue, of hand, of sword) were examined. Similar rules to those of Christian just war exist in Shari'ah (Islamic law): the war should be announced by kalif (authority), it can not be started before certain criteria are met (first enemy should be told about and invited to Islam; if they do not agree they should be taxed, and only if they still do not agree a war of spreading Islam could be started), it should not be fought against the country with which agreements are signed, against civilians, and people of the Book (Jews and Christians), it should be waged proportionally in matter of gains and losses. At the same time Koran carries many ambiguous statements, which can be interpreted differently. Islam does not interpret time without wars as peace but as a temporal truce; eternal peace can't be achieved on the Earth but is anticipated by Muslims in paradise.
Comparative analysis of Christian and Islamic concepts of war and peace shows some similarities as well as some differences. Christian formulations of just war had influenced modern international law but Islamic tradition generally does not contain issues, which would contradict it. Main differences in traditions lie in the treatment of prisoners of war and attitude to pacifism. Pacifism is not completely approved but accepted by Christianity after Vatican II under certain stipulations (such as alternative service) while it is not acceptable in Islam though Islam does not have conscription. The study concludes that ontology of religious and philosophical concepts of war and peace in Islam and Christianity is a result of their long-term evolution. Both religions value peace but history shows that both waged bloody wars. At the same time textual analysis of religious doctrines confirms that none of religions calls to war. Interpretations of Koran by some modern fundamentalists' ideologists contradict Islamic tradition. Study suggests models of peaceful coexistence and algorithms of solving religious conflicts.
Key words: war, peace, Christianity, Islam, jihad, fundamentalism, just war, pacifism.